A Primer on Memory Consistency and Cache Coherence by Daniel J. Sorin, Mark D. Hill, David A. Wood

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By Daniel J. Sorin, Mark D. Hill, David A. Wood

Many smooth computers and such a lot multicore chips (chip multiprocessors) aid shared reminiscence in undefined. In a shared reminiscence procedure, all of the processor cores may possibly learn and write to a unmarried shared handle area. For a shared reminiscence laptop, the reminiscence consistency version defines the architecturally seen habit of its reminiscence method. Consistency definitions supply principles approximately lots and shops (or reminiscence reads and writes) and the way they act upon reminiscence. As a part of aiding a reminiscence consistency version, many machines additionally supply cache coherence protocols that make sure that a number of cached copies of information are stored updated. The objective of this primer is to supply readers with a easy figuring out of consistency and coherence. This knowing comprises either the problems that needs to be solved in addition to quite a few strategies. We current either highlevel thoughts in addition to particular, concrete examples from real-world structures. desk of Contents: Preface / creation to Consistency and Coherence / Coherence fundamentals / reminiscence Consistency Motivation and Sequential Consistency / overall shop Order and the x86 reminiscence version / comfy reminiscence Consistency / Coherence Protocols / Snooping Coherence Protocols / listing Coherence Protocols / complicated issues in Coherence / writer Biographies

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K. Martin, M. D. Hill, and D. A. Wood. Token Coherence: Decoupling Performance and Correctness. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, June 2003. 1206999  In some architectures, the TLB can hold mappings that are not strictly copies of blocks in shared memory. a. memory models) that define the behavior of shared memory systems for programmers and implementors. These models define correctness so that programmers know what to expect and implementors know what to provide.

Non-Binding Prefetching A non-binding prefetch for block B is a request to the coherent memory system to change B’s coherence state in one or more caches. , B’s state is M or S) or loads and stores (B’s state is M) by issuing coherence requests such as GetS and GetM. Importantly, in no case does a non-binding prefetch change the state of a register or data in block B. 4, making the effect of non-binding prefetches on the memory 30 A Primer on Memory Consistency and Cache Coherence consistency model to be the functional equivalent of a no-op.

11 FURTHER READING REGARDING SC Below we highlight a few of the papers from the vast literature surrounding SC. Lamport [8] defined SC. As far as we know, Meixner and Sorin [11, 12] were the first to prove that a system in which cores present loads and stores in program order to a cache coherent memory system was sufficient to implement SC, even as this result was intuitively believed for some time. SC can be compared with database serializability [6]. The two concepts are similar in that they both insist that the operations from all entities appear to affect shared state in a serial order.

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