By George Emery, Herbert Emery
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Extra info for A Young Man’s Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929
Compared to the subordinate degrees, the rituals for the three patriarchal degrees offered more opportunity to display dramatic 2i Institutional History of the IOOF skill. In 1841 the SGL gave representation to grand encampments on the same basis as grand lodges. In 1845 the encampment branch introduced a sick benefit. The SGL made this benefit mandatory in 1881 and subject to its minimum benefit law in 1891. During the years 1857-74, the encampment branch survived several attempts to merge it with the lodge branch (Stillson, 1897: 560-70).
A grand body could withhold the password from a lodge or encampment that had failed to submit its required reports, returns, and per-capita taxes and assessments. It also could suspend a recalcitrant subordinate body's right to send representatives to the grand body's annual meeting. In extreme cases, it could recall or suspend the subordinate body's charter. Grand bodies faced the same discipline. In 1934, for example, the SGL "arrested" the charter of the grand lodge of Tennessee. Regalia and jewels identified a member's rank and rights of membership at Odd Fellow gatherings.
Like the Odd Fellows, the Masons had lodges, higher-degree lodges (like encampments), and a woman's auxiliary branch (Daughters of the Eastern Star). The IOOF'S organization differed, however, from that of other friendly societies. The Knights of Pythias, for example, had nothing comparable to the encampment branch, declined to recognize a female auxiliary branch, and offered an optional endowment degree for Knights who wished to have an annuity benefit. i reports statistics for lodges and encampments, the two IOOF branches that had a sick benefit.