By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch
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Thus, in most systems, the distribution system is the source of the majority of both the voltage-related and availability-related power quality problems seen by energy consumers. Not well used At many power distribution utilities, the primary distribution system is planned and engineered using principles and layout concepts that were developed in the 1920s and 1930s and that have been handed down through generations of planners and engineers without substantial revision or re-examination. Foremost among these long-time "habits" are the overall layout style of the primary feeder system: whether the large trunk, multi-branch of the hierarchical subdivision, often-called "feathered" template for radial feeder layout, guides that.
The reason is that modern power systems are much "leaner" than those of thirty or forty years ago, when N-l was first developed and applied. In the 1960s through the early 1980s, electric utilities typically loaded key equipment, such as substation power transformers and downtown sub-transmission cables, to only about 2/3 or a little more (typically about 66%) of their capacity, even during peak periods. " Engineers and planners at distribution utilities designed their power systems using the N-l and other criteria, while counting on this margin.
Such stable voltage can be difficult to obtain, because the voltage at the consumer end of a T&D system varies inversely with electric demand, falling as the demand increases, rising as it decreases. If this range of load fluctuation is too great, or if it happens too often, the consumers may consider it poor service. Thus, a T&D system's mission is to: 1. Cover the service territory, reaching all consumers 2. Have sufficient capacity to meet the peak demands of its consumers 3. Provide highly reliable delivery to its consumers 4.