By Moojan Momen
“Momen’s ebook fills an immense hole within the basic literature in English on Twelver Shi’ism, and will be rigorously studied through an individual who desires to comprehend extra approximately what's occurring within the heart East today….This is a great paintings which merits the widest attainable readership.”—Malise Ruthven, The center East
“An super important reference resource at the institution and evolution of the Shi’ite department of the Islamic religion.”—Cecil V. Crabb, Jr., Perspective
“An unpretentious type, interpretive readability and . . . sound judgment represent Momen’s writings. many of the elements of Twelver Shi’ism are rigorously individual to fulfill either the overall reader and the aspiring student.”—Norman Calder, Times Literary Supplement
“Specialist and nonspecialist alike will take advantage of its lucid exposition of either elite and well known Shi’ism. specially invaluable is the way in which the paintings provides glossy severe scholarship on Shi’i heritage along the orthodox historical past, which nonetheless has nice impact at the religion’s self-understanding.”—Mel Piehl, Library Journal
Moojan Momen has written commonly on Iran and center East religion.
Read Online or Download An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History & Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism PDF
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Extra info for An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History & Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism
No one can say what the exact amount of trade is, but all this money is used for buying products and services. 35 The war in Iraq and Syria has caused massive emigration from these two countries. 37 If we add up all the refugees from Iraq and Syria who now live in Jordan, they represent more than 20 % of the total population in Jordan. While the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey is higher 35 According to Iraq Oil Report, ISIS controls 60 % of Syria’s oil production and its revenues from oil smuggling amount for 1 million dollars a day.
23–41. 10 2 Economic Environment Even if the company does not use a middleman, it can still opt for the franchise system, which is very popular in the fast-food business. In this case, the franchisee is the one dealing with the local environment. The franchiser does not need to study the environment or invest its own money. All the risk is supported by the franchisee. 8 In both cases, whether through an importer/distributor or a franchisee, the company deals with an intermediary and never the final consumer.
It happens also that the company does not want to adapt to the local market, so there is no need for the analysis of local conditions. This is especially the case for well-established luxury and fashion brands whose creators or designers decide what fashion is and expect that all their customers will follow them. They design and produce for the global customer even if they might have a range of specific products such as a cosmetics whitening range for the Asian/African markets. The products are considered to be global ones and not made for one ethnic or religious group only.