Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and

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Published by means of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic study Series.

In a 1971 medical Committee on Antarctic study document that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the subsequent remark: "People who learn sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, and so they solution 'why trouble, it is the usual stuff." Noting this used to be "fortunately precise to a substantial extent," they extra "It is obvious that destiny paintings will rely seriously at the logistics amenities on hand to permit floor observations past the quick ice facet in any respect seasons of the 12 months. of just about equivalent significance often is the improvement of tools and recording gear suited to use within the polar setting" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited through G. Deacon, medical Committee on Antarctic learn, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).

Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor turned operational in December 1972. lower than a yr later the large Weddell Polynya used to be saw for the 1st time. maybe greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen characteristic illustrated the aptitude to vastly extend our wisdom of sea ice during the software of spaceborne distant sensing. concurrently, it acted as a catalyst for an important raise within the point of study.

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30 t"",, ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' -, E o 20 i Month 20 M I 0 d ......... -F. c: '-. 3•. :' o J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M Month Fig. 10. Mean monthly snow depths for each sector and each J J Month A MARKUS in the microwave data AND CAVALIERI: indeterminable. SNOW The DEPTH use of DISTRIBUTION OVER SEA ICE 37 (RTOP 578-32-20) andby the NASAEOSProject(229- single-dayvalues is currently hampered by spurious 04-15). weather effects and melt events, which occur even in winter. Thus, monthly snow depths on sea ice are REFERENCES presentedfor the years 1988 through 1994.

0 20 40 60 Snowdepth [cm] In-situ' ? ::r"'"l ...... Scm •8 • o 20 o In-situ' '• 20 = l:iii • ...... •, 15 ':::: ....... 6cm 16• 4 • Snowdepth [cm] L 40 Snowdepth [cm] 60 80 • •. 8cm 14t n 810:••] ..... :. ::::::::::::::::::::::: ............. •::':•'•i 8 o 20 • o • 0 ................................................. •............................................ 8. Snowdepth distributionsfrom field experiments(black) and from the SSM/I snow depth algorithm (gray). The letters indicate the cruisessummarizedin Table 80 • MARKUS AND CAVALIERI: SNOW DEPTH 6.

Lohanick, Temporal variaphys. , 96, 4821-4837, 1991. , Snow on seaice: Competing effectsin shaplate spring and early summer near Mould Bay NWT, ing climate, J. , 96, 17,195-17,208, 1991. J. Geophys. , 90, 5063-5074, 1985. C. Comiso, Multifrequency passive microwave observationsof first-year sea ice grown in a remote sensing, in Sea Ice Properties and Processes, tank, IEEE Trans. Geosc. Rein. F. F. Weeks, CRREL 831, 1986. , 90-1, pp. S. , 1990. R. P. , Microwave brightness temperatures of GHz, IEEE Trans.

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