Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore by Peter K Trabant

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By Peter K Trabant

The self-discipline encompassing using high-resolution geophysics for acquiring geoengineering survey information has developed speedily during the last many years to turn into an interdisciplinary topic encompassing the fields of Geophysics, engineering, geology, marine geology, oceanography, and civil engineering. whereas high-resolution geophysical surveys are typically played offshore this present day, this has been so in simple terms because the past due Nineteen Sixties. High-resolution geophysical equipment are hired within the offshore atmosphere to acquire a accomplished photograph of the sea-floor mor­ phology and underlying shallow stratigraphy. the aim of the survey tools is to help within the layout and install of bottom-supported constructions reminiscent of drilling and construction structures and pipelines. Drilling constructions and pipelines of metal and/or concrete became behemoths with appreciate to their measurement and the complexity in their layout so that it will stand up to, for sessions of as much as twenty-five years, a very harsh surroundings, together with typhoon waves, powerful currents, volatile sea­ ground stipulations, and nice water depths. it really is for this reason of paramount significance that the geometry and actual homes of the ocean ground be good understood as a way to supply an enough beginning for the layout lives of such constructions. On land, engineering origin facts frequently should be received via visual view inspection and shallow borehole info, yet offshore the presence of the water column locations yes constraints on geoengineering investigations. High-resolution geophysical equipment hired within the acquisition of geoengineering facts offshore are outlined because the use of seismic resources and receivers that function at acoustic frequencies more than a hundred Hz.

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SEDIMENT SAMPLES The sediment samples obtained by the above coring techniques should be handled with care to avoid being physically disturbed. Sampies are sent to a shore-based geotechnical Iabaratory for testing and analyses. Proper storage and labeling of such samples are critical for their identification in the laboratory. , vertical) and environment (cool and moist) as possible. Labels on the samples should indicate the sample orientation (top, bottom), location, and other pertinent facts. 2.

D. e. pulse length frequency of operation beam width recording technique stylus sweep rate and chart scale whereby shorter pulse lengths, of the outgoing acoustic signal, increase resolution while limiting transmitted power, and increases in transducer beam width (fig. 3) reduce the precision and hence resolution of an echo sounder. As water depths increase, the transmitted beam width and the area of the sea floor covered become larger, reducing the resolution and returned energy Ievels. RECORDER PRECISION The accuracy of the depths recorded is mainly a function of the time base employed to drive the stylus belt or the digital sampling counter.

This curve may be employed by the civil engineer to compute the amount of settling that would be expected for a given Ioad. Thus, if the stress applied to the soil by a jack-up rig were XXX kPa, the soil would yield by expelling a percentage of its water, and decreasing its void ratio (consolidation) over a given period of time, allowing for settlement of the rig. The permeability 3. Marine Geotechnique, An Overview 39 or ability of a sediment sample to allow the passage of fluids may also be determined from the results of the consolidation test.

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