By Linda Marchant, Christophe Boesch, Gottfried Hohmann
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the one species of the genus Pan, and are people' nearest family. This ebook is an intensive evaluation of the latest observations from box experiences at the variety of Pan social habit, with contributions from a few of the world's best specialists. quite a lot of social habit is mentioned together with software use, searching, reproductive techniques, clash administration, demographic variables and ecological constraints. as well as interspecies behavioral range, this article describes interesting new study into diversifications among diverse populations of an identical species.
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Additional info for Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos
Verus P. paniscus (a) (b) Fig. 1. Summary of average taxonomic distances generated from BEHAVIOR data subset (nϭ6 taxa, 57 variables) using (a) UPGMA clustering and (b) principal coordinate analysis. In principal coordinate summary, taxa are joined to nearest neighbor by minimum spanning trees; average taxonomic distances between taxa are indicated. 1. account for 76% of the variation in the data, with the ﬁrst axis alone accounting for more than half of total variation. Along the ﬁrst axis there is a tight clustering of the two bonobo taxa (Wamba and Lomako), and an even tighter clustering of the two P.
1994). Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos: a reevaluation of theory based on two similarly forested sites. In Chimpanzee Cultures, ed. R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal & P. G. Heltne, pp. 41–57. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Clark-Arcadi, A. & Wrangham, R. W. (1999). Infanticide in chimpanzees: review of cases and a new within-group observation from the Kanyawara study group in Kibale National Park. Primates, 40, 337–51. Corruccini, R. S. (1978). Morphometric analysis: uses and abuses.
6 shows the number of character state changes occurring along each of the branches in the accepted phylogeny of the study populations. Because of the homoplasy (parallel evolution of similar features) in the data and the lack of additional outgroups, there were several equally parsimonious reconstructions of character change for many traits on this tree and, hence, many changes that cannot be 26 D. M. DORAN ET AL. reconstructed precisely using parsimony. The reconstructed changes are referred to as ambiguous changes when there are several possible reconstructions and thus the beginning and/or ending character states are impossible to reconstruct precisely, and as unambiguous changes when the character change along the branch node can be reconstructed precisely.