By Michael Boot
Written through specialists in combustion expertise, this can be a precise and clean standpoint at the present biofuel dialogue, offering the most recent examine during this very important field.
The emphasis all through this reference is on functions, commercial views and economics, targeting new sessions of biofuels resembling butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others. essentially dependent, every one bankruptcy provides a brand new type of biofuel and discusses such themes as construction pathways, gas homes and its impression on engines.
the result's a desirable, user-oriented review of recent sessions of biofuels past bioethanol.
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Additional info for Biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass: innovations beyond bioethanol
44] Do˘gan  Armas et al. 998 l, common-rail injection CamposFernández et al. 43 l, 6 kW max power, 850 max rpm Single-cylinder, direct-injection, 17 : 1 compression ratio, naturally aspirated Al Hasan and Al Momany  Karabektas and Hosoz  Yanai et al. 0 bar IMEP, 900 bar injection pressure 1200–2400, Varying load conditions, 18 bar injection pressure Operating conditions Decreased exhaust gas temperatures with increasing fractions of iso-butanol Higher BSFC compared to diesel fuel Lower brake power and BSFC Decreased CO and NOx emission but higher THC • • • • • • • • • • • Ignition under stable conditions was retarded to after top dead center Lower NOx and particulate matter emissions • iso-Butanol exhibits a lower energy density and cetane number compared diesel Fuel-bound oxygen content exhibits a leaning eﬀect during fuel/air mixing iso-Butanol exhibits a low cetane number and higher enthalpy of vaporization decreases exhaust temperature iso-Butanol exhibits a lower energy density compared to diesel n-Butanol exhibits a low cetane number Butanol contains fuel-bound oxygen, which resulted in leaner in-cylinder mixtures Fuel-bound oxygen oﬀsets its reduced LHV by improving combustion eﬃciency Mechanisms involved Statistically insigniﬁcant diﬀerences in fuel economy and brake thermal eﬃciency Key conclusions 44 2 Fuel Class Higher Alcohols Heuser et al.
Dual-fuel combustion has same issues as SACI with balancing the needs of two combustion processes. The pressure and temperature after compression must be suﬃcient enough to ensure that the diesel pilot ignites when injected close to TDC. This calls for a high compression ratio and not too low inlet temperature. On the other hand, the diesel pilots will ignite the homogeneous charge and then ﬂame propagation will follow. 14 Dual-fuel combustion. 15 Dual fuel with compressed natural gas in the inlet port and diesel injected in the cylinder.
Rakopoulos et al. conducted a series of experimental studies of n-butanol blended with diesel fuel in a range of single- and multicylinder engines. In their ﬁrst study , a single-cylinder Hydra engine was operated with blends of 8–24 vol% n-butanol in diesel fuel. An increase in BSFC was observed for the butanol blends due to the lower energy content. Compared to neat diesel fuel, particulate matter emissions decreased signiﬁcantly as the percentage of n-butanol in the blend increased. 6 l 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 diesel passenger car, four-cylinder, common-rail, direct-injection turbocharged Ricardo/Cussons Hydra single-cylinder, direct injection References Miller et al.