Biosonar by Annemarie Surlykke, Paul E. Nachtigall, Richard R. Fay,

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By Annemarie Surlykke, Paul E. Nachtigall, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)

Two teams of animals, bats and odontocetes (toothed whales), have independently built the power to orient and observe prey by means of biosonar (echolocation). This lively mechanism of orientation permits those animals to function less than low gentle stipulations. Biosonar is a conceptual assessment of what's identified approximately biosonar in bats and odontocetes. Chapters are written via bat and odontocetes specialists, leading to collaborations that not just learn info on either animals, but additionally examine and distinction mechanisms. This ebook offers a distinct perception that might support enhance our figuring out of biosonar in either animal teams.

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8 Variation in echolocation calls produced by foraging Mormopterus minuta. (After Mora et al. 2011. Reproduced with permission of the editor of Acta Chiropterologica) 30 B. ) Fenton et al. Fig. 9 Echolocation clicks of odontocetes can be categorized into four general types of clicks. This is demonstrated here with waveforms (A–D) and power spectra (E–H) of the typical search clicks of four toothed whales. From left to right: A broadband, low-frequency pulse from a sperm whale (A + E) (note: only the functional p1 pulse shown here).

The high frequency and bandwidth may help these species track and catch insects through their dense and cluttered rainforest environment. Like most bats, toothed whales also decrease the amplitude of echolocation signals when they enter the buzz phase (Fig. 6). Amplitude and frequency are normally positively correlated in toothed whales (Au et al. 1995) meaning that buzz clicks may have a lower frequency and consequently a broader beamwidth. As for bats trying to catch prey items at close range, broadening the beam right before capture may prevent rapid escape behaviors from taking the prey outside the narrow biosonar beam of a toothed whale.

Modifying other signal parameters can be both essential for an effective biosonar function, and can help shape the information gathered so as to best support the perceptual requirements of different echolocation functions Moss et al. 2011). These changes can include changing the duration, frequency, or intensity of echolocation signals, as well as the biosonar beam pattern (Moss et al. 2011). Many low duty cycle bats often simultaneously shorten the duration of signals as well as the time between calls to avoid overlap between outgoing pulse and returning echo.

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