Buddhist Architecture by Le Huu Phuoc

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By Le Huu Phuoc

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Since all are in essence Sunya; ordinary humans, however, still differentiate because of their unenlightened nature. Thus the Vajrayana radically differs from other Buddhist schools in that it employs a highly convoluted ritualized method to achieve rapid enlightenment even in one’s lifetime. The orthodox Theravada, on the other hand, relies on a lifetime of self-discipline, as Buddha did, to attain their perfect state of Nirvana while the Mahayana emphasizes compassion and selfless sacrifice alongwith rigorous metaphysical and intellectual inquiries to attain Buddhahood.

However the Buddhism as propounded by Buddha, which was clearly anti-Brahmanism and opposition to castes, vastly differed from Vedic Hinduism in its anti-dogmatism, rationalism, and social ethics that greatly appealed to the underprivileged masses. The Theravada, while upholding Buddha’s religion, fell into the traps of religious dogmatism, strict monasticism, and unresponsiveness to reforms which seemingly disregarded the voices of growing dissension within the Sangha as observed in the Second and Third Council.

253 BCE / one edict / Aramaic): Morality edict like (1d). 2], Rampurva 1, and Allahabad-Kausambi Major PEs (c. 243-242 BCE / seven edicts / Brahmi): Asoka’s reflections on the edicts in (1b-1c) in the early years with further elaborations on the contents and definitions of morality. 2. Buddhist Edicts These confirm Asoka’s conversion and patronage of Buddhism. (a) Rummindei PE (c. 2] in his twentieth regnal year; the town is now in Nepal but certainly within Asoka’s empire then. (b) Nigali Sagar PE (c.

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