By D. S. Malik
C++ PROGRAMMING: software layout together with info constructions continues to be the definitive textual content for the CS1/CS1 direction series. during this new 5th variation, D.S. Malik keeps to hire his student-focused, example-based method to coach C++ Programming to introductory computing scholars. adjustments to this version comprise new debugging sections in every one bankruptcy and a mess of recent and up-to-date routines. All syntax is defined completely and strengthened via huge examples and diagrams, and every bankruptcy is filled with valuable self-study instruments equivalent to entire programming examples. C++ PROGRAMMING: application layout together with facts constructions will inspire to scholars to appreciate the "why?" in the back of key C++ suggestions.
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19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. The most basic language of a computer is a sequence of 0s and 1s called machine language. Every computer directly understands its own machine language. A bit is a binary digit, 0 or 1. A byte is a sequence of eight bits. A sequence of 0s and 1s is referred to as a binary code or a binary number. One kilobyte (KB) is 210 ¼ 1024 bytes; one megabyte (MB) is 220 ¼ 1,048,576 bytes; one gigabyte (GB) is 230 ¼ 1,073,741,824 bytes; one terabyte (TB) is 240 ¼ 1,099,511,627,776 bytes; one petabyte (PB) is 250 ¼ 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes; one exabyte (EB) is 260 ¼ 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes; and one zettabyte (ZB) is 270 ¼ 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes.
The abacus was invented in Asia but was used in ancient Babylon, China, and throughout Europe until the late middle ages. The abacus uses a system of sliding beads in a rack for addition and subtraction. In 1642, the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal invented the calculating device called the Pascaline. It had eight movable dials on wheels and could calculate sums up to eight figures long. Both the abacus and Pascaline could perform only addition and subtraction operations. Later in the 17th century, Gottfried von Leibniz invented a device that was able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide.
After a brief introduction in Chapters 2 and 3, you will learn the details of functions in Chapters 6 and 7. Certain algorithms require that a program make decisions, a process called selection. Other algorithms might require certain statements to be repeated until certain conditions are met, a process called repetition. Still other algorithms might require both selection and repetition. You will learn about selection and repetition mechanisms, called control structures, in Chapters 4 and 5. Also, in Chapter 9, using a mechanism called an array, you will learn how to manipulate data when data items are of the same type, such as items in a list of sales figures.