By Nazim Z. Muradov, T. Nejat Veziroğlu
Issues over an volatile strength provide and the antagonistic environmental effect of carbonaceous fuels have prompted significant efforts around the world to discover carbon-free or low-carbon possible choices to traditional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and effort vendors emphasizes the important function of carbon-neutral strength assets, transportation fuels, and linked applied sciences for setting up a sustainable power destiny. every one bankruptcy attracts at the perception of world-renowned specialists in such different fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, sun and nuclear power, biofuels and artificial fuels, carbon sequestration, and replacement gasoline vehicles.
After an introductory bankruptcy on diversified strength strategies in a carbon-constrained global and proposed measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2, the e-book analyzes the benefits and demanding situations dealing with the creation of hydrogen gasoline to undefined. It then examines the function of nuclear energy within the creation of carbon-free power and fuels in addition to the effective use and garage of renewable power assets, emphasizing the construction of sunlight fuels from water and CO2. The booklet additionally discusses varied points of bioenergy and biofuels creation and use and the aptitude function of bio-inspired power platforms and business strategies. the ultimate chapters current a radical evaluation and research of cutting-edge fossil gasoline decarbonization applied sciences and fresh transportation options.
This authoritative paintings presents the knowledge had to make extra trained offerings relating to to be had fresh power and gas possible choices. It is helping readers to higher comprehend the interconnection among power and the surroundings in addition to the capability impression of human actions on weather.
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Additional info for Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers
9 that the RF values for all GHG (including CO2, N2O, CH4, water vapor, and halocarbons) are positive, with the RF for CO2 having the greatest increase in value. The RF for ozone depends on where the ozone molecules are located: in troposphere (positive RF), or in stratosphere (negative RF); the net balance for ozone RF is positive, that is, it does contribute to warming. The forcing effect of aerosols is rather complex because they could directly or indirectly affect the system. The direct forcing effect involves reflection and absorption of solar and long-wavelength radiation in the atmosphere, whereas indirect effect relates to the changes aerosol particles exert on the optical properties of clouds.
Main types of fossil fuels are NG, oil, coal, and peat. According to a widely accepted theory of the fossil fuel origin, on a geological timescale of hundreds of million years, the remains of marine organisms, swamp plants, and incompletely decayed plant matter buried under thick layers of rocks and exposed to high temperature and pressure were transformed to coal, oil, or petroleum (a mixture of light and heavy hydrocarbons). Because of a nonuniformity of the “feedstock” and different conditions of the transformation process, no two coals or oils or gases have the same chemical composition.
IGCC (after combustion) 6. IGCC (syngas) 7. Oil refinery heaters 15 10 5 0 (A) 1. NG, fired boilers 2. Gas turbines 3. Oil, fired boilers 4. % (dry) 30 50 (B) 5. Steam methane reforming 6. Methanol production 3. Ammonia production 7. NG processing 4 . Ethylene oxide 40 30 20 10 0 7 1. Blast furnace gas* 60 2. 20 CO2 concentration in gaseous streams from industrial sources of (A) fuel combustion type, (B) noncombustion type. * Accounts for CO2 from fuel combustion. , and Meyer, A. 2, pp. ) Energy Options in a Carbon-Constrained World 33 variety of industrial sources that include both fuel combustion (A) and noncombustion (B) type CO2 sources.