Carbonate Sedimentology and Petrology by Maurice E. Tucker

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By Maurice E. Tucker

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Published by way of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.

This quantity assumes a basic wisdom of carbonate mineralogy in addition to a familiarity with the final rules of sedimentology and makes a speciality of particular versions of carbonate deposition and diagenesis. the overall precept of uniformity of procedure is mainly commonly utilized in carbonate sedimentology. The editors hence concentration first on versions in line with glossy settings. the applying of those versions to old carbonates completes the quantity.

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This extinction event did, however, drastically affect the associatedorganismswhichchangedfrom a brachiopod-bryozoan-pelmatozoan dominatedfauna to a moremodernmollusc-crustacean-osteichythes dominatedfauna (Sepkowski, 1982). Most late Paleozoic buildups occur in and around the margins of intracratonic basins. In Permian time, with the breakup of Pangea, a large circumglobal seaway, the Tethys, gradually developed and the majority of subsequent Mesozoic reef growth took place along the margins oof • or in basins adjacent to this ocean.

An idealized stratigraphic column representing the Phanerozoic and illustrating times when there appear to be no reefs or bioherms (gaps), times when there were only reef mounds and times when there were both reefs and reef mounds. The numbers indicate different associations of reef-building discussed in the text and arrows represent times of important faunal extinctions (after James, 1983). conspicuous skeletal Between these hyolithids, a matrix fossils elements of these mounds. are skeletons burrowing has destroyed the laminations.

Growth cavities are spar interpreted to wide shallow platforms, and the encrusting as belts coral of patch Microsolena. reefs The red as the green of their In addition, and articulated corallinacea first appear associated with these buildups. Bioerosion is conspicuous in these structures, with sponges now being one of the principal endolithic taxa together with algae and bivalves. The marginal patch reefs are often up to 80% skeletal debris crinoids, snails, solitary bivalves. Copyright American Geophysical Union from the remains of corals and large Short Courses in Geology STRUCTURE Carbonate Sedimentology and Petrology AND STRATIGRAPHY Cretaceous OF MODERN AND ANCIENT REEFS by faulting Buildups attached to the substrate other smaller valve was a lid or cap.

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