By Houbing Song
Cyber-Physical platforms: Foundations, ideas and functions explores the center approach technological know-how viewpoint had to layout and construct advanced cyber-physical structures. utilizing platforms Science’s underlying theories, comparable to likelihood idea, selection idea, online game conception, organizational sociology, behavioral economics, and cognitive psychology, the ebook addresses foundational concerns imperative throughout CPS purposes, together with method layout -- how one can layout CPS to be secure, safe, and resilient in quickly evolving environments, procedure Verification -- tips to strengthen potent metrics and strategies to make sure and certify huge and intricate CPS, Real-time keep watch over and model -- how one can in attaining real-time dynamic keep an eye on and behaviour version in a various environments, equivalent to clouds and in network-challenged areas, production -- tips to harness verbal exchange, computation, and regulate for constructing new items, lowering product thoughts to realizable designs, and generating built-in software-hardware structures at a speed some distance exceeding todays timeline. The publication is a part of the clever Data-Centric structures: Sensor-Collected Intelligence sequence edited via Fatos Xhafa, Technical college of Catalonia.
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Cyber-Physical platforms: Foundations, ideas and functions explores the center method technology viewpoint had to layout and construct advanced cyber-physical structures. utilizing platforms Science’s underlying theories, equivalent to chance conception, choice idea, online game concept, organizational sociology, behavioral economics, and cognitive psychology, the e-book addresses foundational matters significant throughout CPS functions, together with approach layout -- easy methods to layout CPS to be secure, safe, and resilient in speedily evolving environments, process Verification -- tips to enhance powerful metrics and techniques to ensure and certify huge and complicated CPS, Real-time regulate and variation -- how one can in attaining real-time dynamic keep an eye on and behaviour variation in a various environments, reminiscent of clouds and in network-challenged areas, production -- the right way to harness conversation, computation, and keep an eye on for constructing new items, lowering product innovations to realizable designs, and generating built-in software-hardware structures at a speed a long way exceeding todays timeline.
Additional resources for Cyber-Physical Systems. Foundations, Principles and Applications
With this motivation in mind, we consider a general-purpose framework as shown in Fig. 1. The starting point is to assume that we can observe state trajectories of a given hybrid system and measure a performance (or cost) metric denoted by L(θ) where θ is a parameter vector. This vector characterizes a controller (as shown in Fig. 1), but may also include design or model parameters. The premise here is that the system is too complex for a closed-form expression of L(θ) to be available, but that it is possible to measure it over a given time window.
The authors proved that under specific conditions defined in Bauso et al. (2009) an ε-consensus exists. In Li et al. (2011), the authors made the first connection of consensus and communication theory. They investigated distributed average consensus with limited communication data rates and proved that a faster convergence requires a higher quantization. In this section, we will start with Shannon’s channel capacity and we will directly link the SNR of a channel to the quantization of a link in a communication graph.
This mathematical tool is also used in our contribution in Section 4. In the case of an agreement (consensus), we have x ¼ α Á 1. Therefore, we can define our disagreement state as follows (Olfati-Saber and Murray, 2004): x ¼ α Á 1 + δ, (7) where δ denotes the disagreement vector. Based on the definition in Eq. (7), we can also define the state space representation of the disagreement vector (disagreement dynamics): δ_ ¼ ÀLðGk Þ Á δ: (8) 4 INTERACTION OF CONTROL THEORY AND INFORMATION THEORY The interaction between control theory (consensus) and information theory is an important research field for the understanding of CPS.