By N. G. Jerlov
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1962a; Table VIII, column 6 ) and by G. Kullenberg (1968; column 12). A group of functions derived from systematic measurements (in vitro) by Ivanoff and Morel (1964) and Morel (1966) exhibit the change of the function from surface water to clear deep water in the western Mediterranean (Fig. 14). The back-scattered field forms a regular pattern in this diagram. It follows from these results that the scatterance (546 nm) by the water itself at go", /3,,(90), makes up 13% of the total scatterance at go", /3(90), in the surface water and no less than 70% in the deepest water.
Eqs. 23 and 24 are not strictly applicable t o water. It is a well-known fact (Raman, 1922) that pure water permits only partial polarization at 8 = The anisotropy of the scattering centres may be accounted for by adding to eq. 22 an unpolarized intensity 2B2 scattered uniformly over all directions (Dawson and Hulburt, 1941). 4 I , = A' + B2 Ill = A2 cos28 + B2 It is now convenient t o introduce a polarization defect term 6 defined by: This may be reexpressed as: 6 = B2 -A~ B~ + from which it follows that: p(3n) = 1-6 1+6 ~ The corresponding expression for the intensity may thus be written: which is valid for pure water.
Yellow substance is formed from carbohydrates by a “Maillard” reaction.