By Lee P.W.
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Additional resources for Powder Metal Technologies and Application
Preform design is a complex, iterative process currently modeled by computer simulation software programs to help reduce design time and development costs. In the forging step, the P/M preform is removed from the reheat (or sintering) furnace, coated with a die lube, and forged in a heated, closed die operation. The forging process reduces the preform height and forces metal into the recesses of the closed die. This step also brings all features to their final tolerances and densities. Configuration guidelines, typical of precision closed-die forged parts, also apply to P/F parts as follows: • • • • • • • Radii on inside corners of the forging as large as possible to promote metal flow around corners in the tool and promote complete fill of all details.
Important characteristics are 100% density, high purity, and uniformity of chemical composition, traits that are the trademark of HIP P/M materials. Powder metallurgy near-net shapes have made their mark for production applications in several industries. Power turbines for instance have used rotors, rings, and disks (Ref 14) HIP densified from steel alloys such as 12% Cr (X 20 CrMo V 12 1) and 9% Cr 1% Mo (Grade 91). The P/M alloys are superior to their wrought counterparts in that the properties developed are isotropic and are equivalent to the maximum wrought properties in the forging direction.
Steam treating enhances the product by: • • • • • Increasing wear resistance Increasing surface hardness Improving corrosion resistance Increasing compressive yield strength Providing low-pressure leak tightness Formation of this oxide layer unfortunately reduces tensile strength and ductility system and processing conditions. 10 to 20%, depending on the material Heat Treatment. Due to the presence of residual porosity in die-compacted P/M parts, heat-treat practices should utilize gaseous or noncorrosive liquid media (such as quench oil rather than water or fused salts).