By David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton, Patrizia Catellani
This ebook offers a severe evaluation of important advancements in learn and conception on counterfactual considering that experience emerged in recent times and spotlights interesting new instructions for destiny study during this region. Key matters thought of comprise the family among counterfactual and informal reasoning, the practical bases of counterfactual considering, the position of counterfactual pondering within the adventure of emotion and the significance of counterfactual pondering within the context of crime and justice.
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Extra resources for The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking (International Series in Social Psychology)
Action or inaction? , Byrne and McEleney 2000; Gilovich and Medvec 1994; Landman 1987). Another breakthrough came when Zeelenberg and colleagues (Zeelenberg et al. 1998a; Zeelenberg et al. 2000c; Zeelenberg et al. 2002) suggested that regret for actions versus inactions should depend on whether it seems prudent (or not) to keep the status quo based on the outcomes of prior instances. For example, if a soccer team is having a winning season, a coach who changes his players and loses should feel more regret than a coach who keeps his players and loses (an action effect).
In another experiment by Branscombe et al. (1996), some participants read the same date rape story as described above and were asked to write down a change to the victim’s actions in the story. Participants who changed the victim’s action such that the rape would be undone later rated the victim as more at fault than those whose changes would not have undone the rape. Similarly, Wells and Gavanski (1989) found overall that generating undoing mutations first increased later causal ratings but rating causes first did not affect later mutations.
We believe that different participants in different conditions interpret the question in different ways. , death in an off-road car explosion), the probability-change data would be correlated with the causality data, just as SPA predicts. The phenomena Thus, with a properly specified outcome, we can use the equations, together with the figure, to explain several phenomena involving counterfactual and causal reasoning. Phenomenon 1: effects of the number of counterfactual alternatives One prediction that Equation 2 makes is that the more alternative choices there are (some of which would lead to an alternative outcome), the more causality will be attributed to an event that causes the actual outcome to occur.